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The 5 Principles of the Montessori Method

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Montessori education, founded by Dr. Maria Montessori, is distinguished by five key principles: respect for the child, the prepared environment, the absorbent mind, auto-education, and sensitive periods.

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Every parent and educator strives to provide the best educational environment for their children, but what makes Montessori education stand out? The 5 Principles of the Montessori Method are a set of guidelines for understanding and supporting each child’s unique needs and abilities.

Montessori education, founded by Dr. Maria Montessori, is distinguished by five key principles: respect for the child, the prepared environment, the absorbent mind, auto-education, and sensitive periods. These principles aren’t just theories; they are the pillars that uphold a unique and effective approach to early childhood learning.

Amazon founder Jeff Bezos, Google founders Larry Page and Sergey Brin, Pulitzer Prize-winning journalist Ronan Farrow and His Royal Highness Prince George of Cambridge. They are the beneficiaries of a century of student-centered Montessori education that has produced some of the most innovative thinkers on the planet.

Why has the Montessori method produced so many brilliant minds? First, let’s take a look at the history and development of the Montessori method.

The Evolution of Montessori Education

Maria Montessori, who began her professional life as a physician, created the Montessori method of education. Through her work with disadvantaged children, she transitioned from medicine to education. She utilized her training as a scientist to observe how children learn and then applied this knowledge to create a more effective method of educating children, with astounding results.

In 1907, Dr. Maria Montessori opened her first Casa Dei Bambini, or “Children’s House,” for pre-school-aged children. The Montessori method emphasizes independence, freedom within limits, and a child’s natural psychological and social growth.

Montessori education has evolved significantly since its inception in the early 20th century. From its humble beginnings in Italy, the Montessori Method has spread globally, gaining recognition for its child-centered approach. The evolution of Montessori education is marked by its adaptability to different cultural contexts and its consistent focus on the developmental needs of the child. This adaptability has led to the widespread acceptance and implementation of Montessori principles in various educational settings around the world.

Let’s explore these principles in-depth, along with understanding the evolution of Montessori education and assessing its suitability for your child.

The Five Principles of Montessori Method

1. Respect for the Child

Respect for the child” is a core principle of Montessori education. It promotes the view of the child as an individual with his or her own rights, preferences and abilities. This principle encourages adults to observe children closely, to understand their needs and to support their natural developmental path. In a Montessori environment, children are free to choose their own activities and work at their own pace, developing independence and self-confidence.

In addition, Montessori teachers observe children’s behavior without judgment and model respect for all students and peaceful conflict resolution.

2. A prepared environment

According to the Montessori method, children learn best in an already established environment so they can take care of themselves.

In Montessori education, a “prepared environment” is a carefully arranged space designed to promote independent learning and exploration. This environment is stocked with age-appropriate materials to satisfy children’s natural curiosity. Everything in a Montessori classroom has a purpose, from child-sized furniture to specific learning materials that encourage hands-on learning and help develop fine motor skills and cognitive abilities.

3. The Absorbent Mind

Absorptive thinking” is a fundamental concept in Montessori philosophy that emphasizes the idea that young children effortlessly absorb information from their environment. During the first six years of life, a child’s brain acts as a sponge, soaking up the fundamentals of language, culture, and human behavior. This principle emphasizes the importance of providing an enriched and nurturing environment during the formative years.

4. Auto Education

Auto education” or self-directed learning is the hallmark of Montessori education. It is based on the belief that children have an innate desire to learn and that they can educate themselves if given a properly prepared environment and the freedom to choose their activities. Montessori teachers give children space, ideas, direction and the support they need to learn on their own. This approach encourages children to explore, experiment and learn from their discoveries, fostering a love of learning and independence.

5. Sensitive Periods

Sensitive periods” are specific times in a child’s development when he or she is particularly receptive to learning certain skills. During these periods, children demonstrate a strong interest and ability to acquire knowledge in specific areas, such as language, motor or sensory experiences. Montessori education aims to identify and nurture these sensitive periods, providing the right tools and environment for optimal learning.

  • Order Phase: Birth to Age 5
    The phase of Order spans from birth up to five years. During this period, children begin to develop reasoning, organization skills, and an understanding of their environment. Characteristics of this phase often include repetitive behaviors and a desire for consistency, routines, and structure. Children may show a preference for organizing and arranging objects over playing with toys.
  • Language Stage: Speech, Writing, and Reading
    The Language Stage in Montessori is about the development of verbal, written, and reading skills. The oral language sensitive period starts around 7 months, continuing up to 3 years, where children begin imitating sounds and mouth movements, developing verbal communication skills.
    The writing sensitive period typically occurs from around 3 1/2 to 4 1/2 years, while the reading sensitive period starts from about 4 1/2 years and continues until 5 1/2 years. Fostering a language-rich environment is key to supporting your child in developing these skills. This can be achieved through clear conversations with them and others, singing to them, and reading to them.
    Montessori Method Sensitive Periods
  • Sensory Skills Stage: Birth to Age 5
    The Sensory Skills Stage starts from birth and lasts until the age of 5. This is when children truly begin to understand and refine their senses. The first sensory phase, starting at one year, is marked by a fascination with small objects and details, ending as the child starts to grasp the connection between order and detail. The second phase begins at age 2, characterized by an interest and desire to engage in learning experiences that integrate the senses. Providing activities that allow exploration of different textures and landscapes helps promote sensory development.
  • Motor Skills Phases: Birth and Age 2 Onwards
    The Motor Skills Stage is divided into two phases. The first phase involves the development of crawling, pulling up, and eventually walking. Muscle development and hand-eye coordination are also key components of this stage. The second phase, beginning at age 2, focuses on enhancing grip strength and dexterity. Play in outdoor and park settings is an excellent way to encourage this skill development.
  • Social Skills Phase: Starting at Age 2
    The Social Skills Phase, beginning at age 2, is when children start recognizing their part in a group. They may shift their skills and interests towards social interactions during this period. Developing friendships and participating in cooperative play become increasingly important. Teaching your child simple manners like saying “please” and “thank you,” and providing ample social opportunities to interact with peers are great ways to ensure the healthy development of social skills.

Is Montessori Education Right for Your Child?

Determining whether Montessori education is suitable for your child depends on various factors, including your child’s learning style and your family’s educational values. Montessori education is ideal for children who thrive in a self-directed learning environment and benefit from a hands-on approach. It suits families who value independence, creativity, and a holistic approach to education. However, it’s important to consider the individual needs of your child and ensure that the chosen educational approach aligns with their personality and learning style.


The 5 principles of Montessori education offer a comprehensive framework for nurturing the physical, intellectual, and emotional development of children. Alongside understanding its historical evolution and assessing its suitability for individual children, Montessori education stands as a testament to the enduring power of respecting and supporting the natural development of each child.

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Steven Wang

We are a leading manufacturer and supplier of pre-school furniture and over the past 20 years we have helped more than 550 customers in 10 countries to set up their preschools. If you have any problems with it, call us for a free, no-obligation quote or discuss your solution.


Picture of Steven Wang

Steven Wang

We are a leading manufacturer and supplier of pre-school furniture and over the past 20 years we have helped more than 550 customers in 10 countries to set up their preschools. If you have any problems with it, call us for a free, no-obligation quote or discuss your solution.

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